Written in 1996.
- Punctuated Equilibrium.
- Four reasons why evolution cannot be true
- Alternative explanation
… when he wrote that:
to suppose that the eye could have been formed by natural selection (evolution) seems absurd in the highest possible degree.
Oxford biologist Richard Dawkins, who believes that Darwin’s theory of evolution has the answer to all natures complexities, is not daunted by this admission of his mentor. In his book, Climbing Mount Improbable, he agrees with Darwin that there are difficulties in believing in the evolution of the eye: An eye is made up of a large number of parts arranged in a very special way. The number of possible ways in which those parts could have been arranged comes to a stupefyingly large number. Moreover, of all the trillions of possible arrangements of the parts of an eye, only a tiny minority would see.
To answer this possible objection to the theory of evolution, Dawkins argues that, It is not difficult for rudimentary lens-like objects to come into existence spontaneously. Any old lump of half-way transparent jelly need only assume a curved shape (there are all sorts of reasons why it might) and it will immediately confer at least a slight improvement on a simple cup or pinhole. Lenses might have evolved in the first place from a vitreous mass that filled the whole eye. According to calculations made by Swedish biologists he says that it would only take about 364,000 generations to evolve a good fish eye with a lens.
Even if you accept this unlikely scenario, it does not tell us how long it would take to evolve a good human eye or how these blind or half blind creatures managed to stumble around for millions of years while they evolved their eyes. Nor does it tell us how something as wonderful and complex as the eye could have come together by chance, when all the evidence of the natural world is that left to themselves things become more random and disorganised, not more complex and developed (the Second Law of Thermodynamics).
Just as wonderful and complex as the eye is the reproductive system of different species. This raises an even more serious question for evolutionists. Species which reproduce sexually require a separate development of the male and the female form, which have to come together to produce the next generation. The problem for evolution is that there is no possibility of 364,000 generations to make this development. In fact there is not even the possibility of two generations. If the reproductive system is not functioning perfectly there is only one generation of the evolving species.
Consider the complexity and diversity of the reproductive systems of birds, bees, butterflies, frogs, fish, kangaroos, whales and humans, just to give a few examples. Regarding human reproduction consider the process of puberty, male attraction to the female, the sexual union itself, the fertilisation of the female egg by the male sperm, the development of the unborn child in the womb, the birth process and the feeding of the new born child with the mothers milk. All these factors are incredibly complex and absolutely vital to the survival of the species. If any aspect of this amazing process is not functioning perfectly, there is no reproduction possible and therefore no new generations and no evolution.
It makes far more sense to believe Genesis 1 that God instantly created fully developed and sexually mature creatures of distinct kinds, each able to reproduce after their own kind. All such kinds of creatures, such as dog-kind and cat-kind, do have the genetic potential to produce limited variation within their own kind. This ties up with what we can observe in nature. Usually a dog mates with another dog, although very occasionally a dog may interbreed with say a wolf. A dog never mates with a cat!
The fossil record too is what we should expect from created kinds. All types appear distinct and there are no genuine transitional forms, to prove gradual evolution of say cats and dogs or their evolution from reptiles. All the missing links are still missing.
So evolutionists have now come up with a new idea called Punctuated Equilibrium. By this they mean that there were millions of years when there was little or no evolution taking place (equilibrium). This period of equilibrium was punctuated by short bursts of intense evolutionary activity, producing the development of new species (though why these bursts of activity should have taken place remains a mystery). It is claimed that these bursts happened so quickly on the geological time scale that little or no fossil evidence was left in the rocks. Very convenient!
This idea has been seized upon by the New Age movement with people saying that a great leap forward in the evolutionary process is about to take place. This is described as the Quantum leap into the New Age in which an elite of spiritually enlightened persons will discover their godhood and develop extraordinary psychic powers. Those who resist this process will fail to survive the paradigm shift into the New Age. In this spiritual survival of the fittest they will be sent to other worlds to rethink their attitudes, while the New Age elite rule and reign in a millennium of love and light.
The reality is that our generation which has denied God as the Creator is busy destroying his creation by polluting the earth and wiping out millions of its life forms. As a result it is unlikely that we will survive long into the next millennium unless God intervenes to save us from destruction. Mankind is also tampering with the natural form of reproduction in ways which are extremely harmful to the future of life on earth. One of the worst abuses is the worldwide use of abortion as a means of disposing of unwanted pregnancies. An estimated 40,000,000 babies a year are killed in the womb.
Other alarming developments are in the area of genetic engineering. The Daily Mail (7th March 1996) featured the cloning of sheep, born to different mothers but genetically identical, cloned from one embryo. The scientists responsible say their technique could be used to ease food problems or fight disease. The paper raises the nightmare prospect, that in the wrong hands, such knowledge could be a major step towards creating a human master race. Another alarming experiment involves the possibility of treating male infertility by growing human sperm in mice. Add all this to the use of animal organs in human transplants and we see how science is developing techniques in which human beings are playing at God. This is another reason why we believe that our civilisation is coming to an end. As at the Tower of Babel, God has to intervene to put an end to human progress because nothing they plan to do will be impossible for them. (Genesis 11.6).
The Psalmist showed more wisdom than most of the great minds of our generation when he wrote:
‘O Lord you have searched me and known me. … for you have formed me in my inward parts; You have covered me in my mothers womb. I will praise you for I am fearfully and wonderfully made; Marvellous are your works, and that my soul knows very well. My frame was not hidden from you, when I was made in secret.’ Psalm 139:1,13-15
Four reasons why evolution cannot be true
Something cannot come out of nothing.
The most common evolutionary theory for the origin of the universe is the Big Bang theory. The logical fallacy behind this is that it means that in the beginning there was nothing and then nothing exploded. Where did the cosmic dust / energy which exploded in the Big Bang come from? Nothing cannot explode.
Order does not come out of chaos.
Our universe is not random and chaotic. Our earth is perfectly balanced in its position in the Solar System to support life. Explosions create chaos and disorder. The implication of the Big Bang theory is that the universe is proceeding from disorder to order. The opposite is true. The Second Law of Thermodynamics says that the universe is becoming more random and disorganised, not more organised.
Life does not come out of non-life.
The study of genetics is showing that even the most simple organisms have incredibly complex DNA. There is no possibility that life with the ability to reproduce itself could come out of an explosion or chemical reaction. Evolutionary scientists are coming up with more and more bizarre ideas for the origin of life, like the idea now being promoted on the BBC that simple life forms originated in distant parts of the universe, survived crossing the universe on the back of comets which then crashed into the earth and produced the life of this planet.
Complex life forms cannot have evolved.
Evolutionary scientists, including Darwin himself, recognise that organs like the human eye are unbelievably complex. Darwin actually said that there is no possibility that the eye could have evolved. Richard Dawkins contradicts Darwin saying that it could have evolved over thousands of generations. But this raises a logical fallacy. While the eye was evolving the creature was blind. Blind humans cannot survive without the help of the sighted. So what happened for millions of years while the eye evolved?
This argument applies to all evolutionary leaps. Without wings the average bird is not going to survive very long in the presence of the average cat. How did birds survive for millions of years while they evolved their wings? Until they had two perfectly functioning wings the evolving wings would actually have been a hindrance not a help.
Even more crucial is the reproductive system of different creatures. Think about the incredibly complex and diverse reproductive systems of birds, bees, butterflies to say nothing of humans. Every part of the system, both male and female, has to be functioning perfectly. If not, how many generations does the species have? One. It does not have millions of years to evolve the reproductive system. Either it works and the creature can reproduce itself for millions of generations. Or it does not work and the creature dies out after the first generation.
In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth.
This mighty universe originated in the creative power of the eternal God, who is without beginning and without end. The question Who made God? is the product of our limited minds which cannot conceive or understand eternity without Gods help.
God created an ordered universe.
Creation demands a Creator and design demands a designer. If someone said a watch had come about as a result of an explosion or an accident we would think they were crazy. The universe shows abundant evidence of Gods design. It was created for his purposes: Thus says the Lord who created the heavens, who is God, who formed the earth and made it, who has established it, who did not create it in vain, who formed it to be inhabited (Isaiah 45.18).
Although the Bible does not claim to be a scientific text book, its statements about the universe do not contradict modern scientific discoveries, unlike things taught in other belief systems. The Bible teaches that there are an infinite number of stars in the universe, not the limited number of stars that can be seen with the naked eye (Genesis 15.5). Isaiah 40.22 tells us that the earth is a sphere (not flat!); Job 26.7 that it hangs on nothing or is set in space (not that it is set on pillars as the Greeks taught or that the sun is taken in a boat underneath it between sunset and sunrise as the ancient Egyptians taught). The present decay of the universe which science has explained by the Second Law of Thermodynamics is taught in the Psalm 102.25-6: The heavens are the work of your hands. They will perish, but You will endure; yes all of them will grow old like a garment, like a cloak you will change them.
God created fully developed creatures with their seed within them and the ability to reproduce after their own kind. Birds could fly, humans could see, caterpillars produced chrysalises and turned into butterflies. God created all the amazingly diverse reproductive systems requiring male and female input which were fully functioning from the beginning and able to sustain generation after generation of the species. Humans are different from animals being created in the image of God with a spiritual dimension capable of communicating with God and receiving the gift of eternal life through the Messiah Jesus who is Himself God and through whom the world was made (John 1.1-18, Hebrews 1.1-3).
It takes faith to believe all this as we read in Hebrews 11.3: By faith we understand that the worlds were framed by the word of God, so that the things which are seen were not made of things which are visible.
It also takes faith to believe the evolutionary hypothesis. Today evolution is taught as fact by the educational system and by the media. Really it is an important part of the brainwashing process, which is leading to the antichristian world of the last days as people deny the Creator and make up their own rules about how to live. Many people think they are being daring and free-thinking by believing evolution, but in fact they are only doing what the powers that be want them to do.
For further information on this subject we recommend you visit the website of Answers in Genesis https://answersingenesis.org